Besides, the specific attributes of current Rwanda culture such as craft, performing arts, habitat were formed in this era.
Colonial period - Independence
Post-independence - Genocide
Post-independence regimes institutionalized the politicization of ethnicity and practiced systematic ethnic exclusion as a mode of governance. This led to the forceful repatriation of thousands of refugees under the leadership of the Rwanda Patriotic Front (RPF). Forced to accept the peaceful solution to the war, the regime planned a systematic elimination of tutsi and moderate hutus and this culminated in the well known genocide of 1994 that was perpetrated by the former army and the well known militia (interahamwe).
Post-genocide - Today
In July 1994 RPF stopped genocide, set up a transitional government of national unity. In 2003, Rwanda adopted the new constitution by referendum, organized both presidential and legislative multiparty elections. Despite the current potential destabilization due to the presence of former army and militia in Eastern DRC, the country has enjoyed peace and steady reconstruction and development for the last 13 years.
|1884||The Berlin Conference is held on the division of Africa between European Nations.|
|1894||The German captain, von Gotzen, is received by the Rwandan monarch, King Kigeli IV Rwabugili.|
|1895||Rwanda becomes part of German East Africa colonies along with Burundi and Tangayika.|
|1900||The German administration welcomes the first group of European Catholic missionaries, known as the "White Fathers" or "Peres Blancs" fleeing from the neighboring British colony of Uganda.|
|1917||After the defeat of the Germans in WW1, Belgium army moves in Rwanda from their neighboring colony of Congo and in 1923 the League of Nations mandates Belgium to administer Rwanda; Belgium establishes a political system of indirect rule administration with the King effectively working under the Belgian Administration.|
|1935||The Belgian Colonial Administration issues, for the first time, identification that clearly categorized people as "hutu", "tutsi" and "twa" on the basis of the number of heads of cattle they owned. Those with ten or more cows were categorized as "tutsi"; while those with less were categorized.|
|1954||King Rudahigwa demands total independence and an end to Belgian colonial occupation. This was the main reason for the shift of support of the colonial administration from the King to the hutu elite.|
|1957||Indeed under the patronage of the colonial administration and the Catholic Church, Gregoire Kayibanda, a hutu catechist, publishes the "hutu Manifesto" demanding the political authority be granted to the Bahutu majority. He later created the Parmehutu party.|
|1962||Belgium officially grants independence to Rwanda and Gregoire Kayibanda becomes the President of the First Republic. 1959: first ethnic killings and exile for thousands Rwandans. With independence came the "ethnization" of all aspects of life in Rwanda (education, access to employment, to police, army, political participation, etc.); this went on until 1994.|
|Systematic ethnic killings and subsequent exile|
|1990||The Rwanda Patriotic Front (RPF) made mostly of 30 years old refugees barred from going back home forcibly launched an invasion from Uganda.|
|August 1993||Arusha (Tanzania) peace accord under the auspice of the UN based mostly on power sharing and repatriation of refugees.|
|April 6th 1994||genocide starts after the death of former President J. Habyarimana in a plane clash. Genocide was stopped by the RPF that won the war and subsequently formed a government of national unity with the 6 other opposition parties.|
|2003||New constitution and first ever multiparty Presidential and Parliamentary elections that saw President Paul Kagame elected as the President of the Republic up to date.|